AGMA B05 Metallurgical Specifications for Steel Gear – Download as Word Doc .doc /.docx), PDF File .pdf) or read online. AGMA B05 Metallurgical. AGMA B Metallurgical Specifications for Steel Gearing. standard by American Gear Manufacturers Association,. View all product details. Most Recent . 8 Aug AGMA B05 – Metallurgical Specifications for Steel Gearing/钢制齿轮冶金技术 条件.
|Published (Last):||19 May 2006|
|PDF File Size:||12.60 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||10.47 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
In the laboratory, one can apply known cyclic stress intensity to a crack and evaluate agma 923-b05 threshold stress intensity, K thor the agma 923-b05 stress intensity required to begin to drive crack growth. In order to provide a more direct linkage between gear design and steel cleanness effects on gear fatigue performance, some further analytical processes can be performed on these automated SEM image analysis data. Stereographic methods are employed to generate volumetric inclusion population density, and linear elastic fracture agma 923-b05 are employed to illustrate critical agma 923-b05 size for initiation and growth of a fatigue crack in application.
The consolidated tables were submitted to the gear rating committees for their agreement and are published here for reference by other standards. An outer-shell, high-energy electron then fills the hole, and the difference in energy is released as a characteristic X-ray.
A series of multipliers agma 923-b05 generated based on the number of size ranges selected. As a result, the current work cannot provide a figure for oxide stringers equivalent to Figure 8. Heat Treatment of Steel Gears. Heat Treatment of Steel Gears July 15, However, this method does not provide inclusion metrics that are relevant to gear agma 923-b05, and it cannot provide the statistically robust data needed to predict gear performance. This well-established science applies the agma 923-b05 of solid mechanics stress and strain and the physics of energetic fracture processes to calculate the driving force for propagation of cracks in agma 923-b05 and predict crack behavior.
To produce and certify steel to Ultrapremium air-melted quality, TimkenSteel employs advanced vacuum refining and teaming practices and measures the steel cleanness with SEM image analysis and statistical evaluation. These histograms are particularly useful in comparing the inclusion population between the five steel sources and in considering the concentration of inclusions greater than 10 or 20 mm and stringers longer than and mm for each steel source.
These data can quickly be considered with respect to a gear agma 923-b05 or a test coupon size to get a sense of the probability of inclusion-related fatigue failures. The oxide inclusion content limits for Ultrapremium steels are on par with typical values for oxide inclusions in vacuum agma 923-b05 re-melted VAR steels, but at a much lower cost.
Z-contrast facilitates the automated identification of oxide agka in a steel matrix as a result of the significant difference between the atomic number of iron, with an atomic number agma 923-b05 26, and oxygen, with an atomic number of 8.
The inset pictures from the gear failure illustrate how this LEFM data relates to the gear failure. Each of the first three steels were produced by electric arc furnace and vacuum refining, and each meet AGMA grade 3 and ASTM A  bearing steel quality requirements for oxide inclusion cleanness. This information sheet identifies specifications and requirements for various metallurgical quality grades for through hardened, agma 923-b05 and hardened, induction and flame hardened, and nitrided gearing.
Scuffing September agma 923-b05, With SEV analysis, one can use the population of inclusions measured on a limited, but statistically robust set of samples to predict a worst case or maximum agmx inclusion size. Log in to leave a comment. Figure 10 illustrates the test procedure for performing a LEFM crack growth rate test .
Figure 3 agma 923-b05 shows the raw data in histogram form for macro stringer oxide inclusions lengths per square millimeter. Agma 923-b05 ability to fully characterize the geometric and chemical characteristics of micro and macro oxide inclusion populations using automated image analysis SEM allows the agms to understand how practices employed in the melting and teaming agma 923-b05 and solidification of the steel affect oxide cleanness.
The statistics of extreme values SEV can be used qgma predict the single largest inclusion likely in the steel, enabling the gear design engineer to consider the worst-case inclusion.
In each case, the steel types are nominally equivalent carburizing steel chemistries. Under high contact stress conditions of approximately MPa, agma 923-b05 10 mm inclusion is predicted to be of a critical size, while agma 923-b05 a root agma 923-b05 stress of approximately MPa, a 20 mm inclusion is predicted to be of a critical size. Quantitative stereography can be employed to convert the measured area concentration of inclusions to mean-free path between inclusions and volumetric concentration, enabling the gear design engineer to make direct comparisons of stressed volumes and volumetric inclusion concentrations.
Log into your account. Similarly, if the same automotive ring gear is determined to have 0. Oxide particles in steel typically consist of aluminum, magnesium, calcium, or silicon oxide compounds or phases. Figure 3 a shows the raw data from automated SEM image analysis in the form of a histogram for micro globular oxide inclusion per square millimeter. The reduced variate is a log-log measure of the accumulated inspected area agma 923-b05 the set of extreme agma 923-b05 samples.
A sample is machined with a notch and subject to an initial fatigue cycle to pre-crack the sample.
The SEM scans each mm 2 sample and stops on any particle larger than 3 mm in square root area. As the stress agma 923-b05 is reduced, the crack stops, and the threshold stress intensity for the material is established. These limits allow gear designers and producers to select material suppliers that will meet the minimum expectations for material agma 923-b05 performance, but do not provide the data needed by designers to meet ever-increasing demands for high power density gearing applications faced today.
Forty-eight samples from six locations in the heat are collected from front, middle, and back portions of 923b05 heat and top and bottom positions of the ingot. Historically, inclusions are measured against ASTM E45 agma 923-b05 or similar micro cleanness specifications using light optical microscopy LOM and six samples to represent a heat.
When there is a greater population of agma 923-b05, more of the gears in the Monte Carlo set exhibited inclusions in load zones. Effort was made to reference ISO specifications where agma 923-b05. Agmx 2 shows the maximum likely globular oxide inclusions for each of the steels reviewed previously.
Micro inclusions at the surface of a gear can be directly considered from these data, while agma 923-b05 so for stringers would require that the gear be machined from bar stock such that all stressed surfaces are along the original longitudinal plane to be directly considered. Figure 1 shows an example of EDS analysis of a macro oxide stringer inclusion.
Gear Design Relevant Cleanness Metrics | Gear Solutions Magazine Your Resource to the Gear Industry
Future of gear design relies on overcoming present. If that volume stressed in excess of MPa is determined to be 0. Because each element has a unique agma 923-b05 structure, each element has a unique set of peaks on its X-ray emission spectrum.
The Ultrapremium practice for its strand cast process path is under development. Conversations with multiple gear designers and failure analysts indicate that agma 923-b05 predicted values are consistent with real-world experiences with heavily loaded gears.
A total reference area A tot is selected, which is used to provide a limit for performing an extrapolation of the data set in order to agma 923-b05 the SEV value.
As noted previously, macro stringer sgma are typically an order of magnitude less frequent than 923-g05 oxides and therefore much less likely to be in a critical area compared to one or more critically sized globular oxides. Inclusions can be placed parametrically by the user to study various scenarios. Characteristics covered include raw material, heat treatment and post heat treat processing, and their associated inspections. As illustrated in Figure 6a linear agma 923-b05 using the maximum agma 923-b05 linear fit is made of the rank-ordered extreme value data, and the value at which this regression intersects the Y lim value agma 923-b05 the SEV maximum likely inclusion value.